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Berkshire West Safeguarding Children Partnership (in Reading)Procedures Manual

Abuse Linked to Faith or Belief


In January 2018 this chapter was renamed to Faith Related Harmful Practice. This policy aims to address certain kinds of child abuse linked to faith or belief. This policy does not include child abuse within culture or faith contexts in general. So it does not seek to address female genital mutilation, forced marriage, excessive physical punishment or abuse relating to gender, sexuality, ethnicity, nationality, disability or other differences recognised within social or cultural beliefs.


  1. Definition
  2. Risks
  3. Indicators
  4. Protection and Action to be Taken
  5. Issues
  6. Further Information
  7. Law
  8. Local Information

1. Definition

This policy aims to address certain kinds of child abuse linked to faith or belief. This includes: belief in concepts of witchcraft and spirit possession, demons or the devil acting through children or leading them astray (traditionally seen in some Christian beliefs), the evil eye or djinns (traditionally known in some Islamic faith contexts) and dakini (in the Hindu context); ritual or muti murders where the killing of children is believed to bring supernatural benefits or the use of their body parts is believed to produce potent magical remedies; and use of belief in magic or witchcraft to create fear in children to make them more compliant when they are being trafficked for domestic slavery or sexual exploitation. This is not an exhaustive list and there will be other examples where children have been harmed when adults think that their actions have brought bad fortune, such as telephoning a wrong number which is believed by some to allow malevolent spirits to enter the home.

This policy does not include child abuse within culture or faith contexts in general. So it does not seek to address female genital mutilation, forced marriage, excessive physical punishment or abuse relating to gender, sexuality, ethnicity, nationality, disability or other differences recognised within social or cultural beliefs.

The term 'belief in spirit possession' is the belief that an evil force has entered a child and is controlling him or her. Sometimes the term 'witch' is used and is the belief that a child is able to use an evil force to harm others. There is also a range of other language that is connected to such abuse. This includes black magic, kindoki, ndoki, the evil eye, djinns, voodoo, obeah, demons, and child sorcerers. In all these cases, genuine beliefs can be held by families, carers, religious leaders, congregations, and the children themselves that evil forces are at work. Families and children can be deeply worried by the evil that they believe is threatening them, and abuse often occurs when an attempt is made to 'exorcise', or 'deliver' the child. Exorcism is the attempt to expel evil spirits from a child. (Safeguarding Children from Abuse Linked to a Belief in Spirit Possession 2007)

The belief in 'possession' or 'witchcraft' is widespread. It is not confined to particular countries, cultures or religions, nor is it confined to new immigrant communities in this country.

Any concerns about a child which arise in this context must be taken seriously.

2. Risks

The number of known cases of child abuse linked to accusations of 'possession' or 'witchcraft' is small, but children involved can suffer damage to their physical and mental health, their capacity to learn, their ability to form relationships and to their self-esteem. It is likely that a proportion of this type of abuse remains unreported.

In some cases there are also real-world factors underlying the abuse. This is sometimes described as the scapegoating of children to reconcile misfortune that has occurred to the family or community, such as an adult family member becoming unemployed or being in poverty. In these situations, those who are different because they have some special traits (such as being particularly bright, having difficult behaviour, having a disability or children living away from their parents) are the target of scapegoating, being accused of having caused the misfortune by supernatural means. The most vulnerable people within a group offer the least ability to resist being scapegoated, and children are a group who are inherently vulnerable, needing protection from adults around them.

There are various social reasons that make a child more vulnerable to an accusation of 'possession' or 'witchcraft'. These include family stress and/or a change in the family structure.

The attempt to 'exorcise' may involve severe beating, burning, starvation, cutting or stabbing and isolation, and usually occurs in the household where the child lives.

Any siblings or other children in the household may be well cared for with all their needs met by the parents and carers. The other children may have been drawn in by the adults to view the child as 'different' and may have been encouraged to participate in the adult activities.

3. Indicators

Concerns reported in the cases known from research have involved children aged 2 to 14, both boys and girls, and have generally been reported through schools or non-governmental organisations. The referrals usually take place at a point when the situation has escalated and become visible outside the family.

Note: This means that the child may have been subjected to serious harm for a period of time already.

The initial concerns referred have been about:

  • Issues of neglect such as not being fed properly or being 'fasted', not being clothed, washed properly etc. but left to fend for themselves especially compared to the other children in the household;
  • Often the carer is not the natural parent and the family structure can be complex;
  • Children often appear distressed and withdrawn;
  • The child is seen as the scapegoat for a change in family circumstances for the worse;
  • In a group of children it may be the child who is relatively powerless vis-a-vis the parents/carers, maybe a child with no essential role in the family;
  • The child is seen as someone who violates the family norms by being physically different perhaps because of illness, disability or, in some cases, a suspicion by the father of adultery by the mother.

Child abuse linked to faith or belief may occur where a child is treated as a scapegoat for perceived failure.

All agencies should be alert to the indicators above and should be able to identify children at risk of this type of abuse and intervene to prevent it.

4. Protection and Action to be Taken

Where the concerns about abuse linked to witchcraft and spirit possession for the welfare and safety of the child or young person are such that a referral to Children's Social Care should be made and the Referrals Procedure must be followed.

An assessment should aim to fully understand the background and context to the beliefs and must involve the particular faith group or person performing or advising the family about the child in order to establish the facts i.e. what is happening to the child. Independent advisors should be considered to act as advisors and mediators where possible.

The assessment may include key people in the community especially when working with new immigrant communities and different faith groups. In view of the nature of the risks, a full health assessment of the child should take place to establish the overall health of the child, the medical history and current circumstances.

5. Issues

Whilst specific beliefs, practices, terms or forms of abuse may exist, the underlying reasons for the abuse are often similar to other contexts in which children become at risk. These reasons can include family stress, deprivation, domestic violence and abuse, substance abuse and mental health problems. Children who are different in some way, perhaps because they have a disability or learning difficulty, an illness or are exceptionally bright, can also be targeted in this kind of abuse.

Any suggestions that the parent or carers will take the child out of the country must be taken seriously and legal advice sought regarding possible prevention. The child must be seen and spoken to on his or her own. The child's sleeping and living arrangements must be inspected.

In assessing the risks to the child, the siblings or any other children in the household must also be considered as they may have witnessed or been forced to participate in abusive or frightening activities.

Concerns about a place of worship may emerge where:

  • A lack of priority is given to the protection of children and there is reluctance by some leaders to get to grips with the challenges of implementing sound safeguarding policies or practices;
  • Assumptions exist that 'people in our community' would not abuse children or that a display of repentance for an act of abuse is seen to mean that an adult no longer poses a risk of harm;
  • There is a denial or minimisation of the rights of the child or the demonisation of individuals;
  • There is a promotion of mistrust of secular authorities;
  • There are specific unacceptable practices that amount to abuse.

6. Further Information

Further contacts for advice can be found from the local representatives for some faiths, from organisations such as the Churches' Child Protection Advisory Service (CCPAS) who provide information about exorcism; the African Caribbean Evangelical Alliance (ACEA); Churches Together in England and the Muslim Parliament, all of whom are consulting about and developing guidance.

National Action Plan to Tackle Child Abuse Linked to Faith or Belief (2012)

Safeguarding Children from Abuse Linked to a Belief in Spirit Possession (2007) this good practice guidance is archived but still available.

7. Law

Children Act 1989

Section 47 of the Children Act 1989 empowers LA's to investigate a referral that a child may have suffered or is at risk of suffering harm. Whilst the Children Act 1989 does not mention the terms witchcraft or spirit possession, it does clarify what constitutes child abuse, which can include harm through witchcraft or spirit possession. 

Children Act 2004

Under Section 11 of the Children Act 2004, government bodies and agencies must 'make arrangements for ensuring that their functions are discharged having regard to the need to safeguard and promote the welfare of children.' This applies to children's services, Health bodies and Trusts and police authorities (including transport police).

Local Information

To follow.